Flechtenbilder (Pa-Pe)

Pannaria-conoplea-8151 Pannaria conoplea (Ach.) Bory
Corticolous; on bark of deciduous trees.
Thallus blue-grey; lobes elongate, incised; margins ascending, whith granular, sorediate, isidia (older specimen can be covered almost completely by them); often with a black conspicuous hypothallus; lower surface dark and tomentose; apothecia rare, margins isidiate.
Thallus K-, C-, Pd+ orange.
Austria: Alps.
Pannaria-pezizoides-5124 Pannaria pezizoides (Web.) Trev.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees.
Thallus grey; squamules inconspicuous (crusty); usually fertile; apothecial disc orange; margin crenulate, of the same colour as the thallus. Spot reactions negative.
Portugal: Madeira.
Pannaria-pezizoides Pannaria pezizoides (Web.) Trev.
Portugal: Madeira.
Pannaria-rubiginosa-02 Pannaria rubiginosa (Ach.) Bory
Corticolous; on deciduous trees.
Thallus rosette-forming; squamules grey (bluish grey when wet), deeply incised; margins ascending and paler; usually fertile; apothecial disc reddish-brownish; margins crenulate. Thallus K-, C-, Pd+ orange.
Portugal: Madeira.
Pannaria-rubiginosa-03 Pannaria rubiginosa (Ach.) Bory
Pannaria-rubiginosa-120928 Pannaria rubiginosa (Ach.) Bory (wet)
Pannaria-saubinetii-2026a Pannaria saubinetii (Mont.) Nyl
On Laurus spec.; in humid environment (Laurisilva).
Thallus consisting of small squamules (< 1 mm), adpressed and incised, without soralia and isidia; prothallus black; usually fertile; apothecial margin biatorine (paler than the disc). No spot reactions.
Portugal: Madeira.
Pannaria-saubinetii-2026b Pannaria saubinetii (Mont.) Nyl
Pannaria-tavaresii-5547 Pannaria tavaresii P.M. Jørg. syn. P. rubiginosa var. isidiosa.
On volcanic rocks.
Thallus foliose, rosette-forming (2-3 cm diameter); upper side whitish-bluish-grey; lobes 3-4 mm wide (broadest apical), deeply incised, concave; margins paler , ascending; isidia marginal, finger-like; apothecia up to 1 mm in diameter, discs red-brown, margins granulate to isidiate, of the same colour as the thallus. Thallus Pd+ orange.
Spain; Canary Islands; La Gomera.
(700 m above sea level).
Pannaria-tavaresii-5547b Pannaria tavaresii P.M. Jørg.
Paranectria-oropensis-Candelariella-efflorescens _Kalock___MPE_3____66zu1____f_4___ISO100___13sec___A___16_Bilder-mit_Mastab Paranectria oropensis auf Candelariella 
Paraparmelia-usitata-7430-Waterberg Paraparmelia usitata (Brusse) Elix
On sandstone.
Namibia: Waterberg region.
(Ident: V. Wirth).
Paraparmelia-usitata-7431 Paraparmelia usitata (Brusse) Elix
Parmelia-ernstiae-2008-Windisch Parmelia ernstiae Feuerer & Thell
Corticolous; on deciduous trees.
Lobes ridged; surface strongly pruinose; lobulae common; pseudocyphella forming a reticulate net (mainly near the tips); isidia cylindrical to coralloid, pruinose. Cortex K+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow becoming orange to red, P+ yellow and then orange-red. The very similar Parmelia saxatilis grows on rocks, has no lobulae and is not (or weakly)pruinose. Distincted from P. sulcata and P. omphalodes by the presence of isidia.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Parmelia-omphalodes Parmelia omphalodes (L.) Ach.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (Laurisilva).
Lobes brown, with a purple tinge, reticulate (white lines); isidia and soralia absent; lower surface black with simple or furcate rhizines growing to the margins; apothecia not common.Medulla K+ yellow-red; P+ orange.
Portugal: Madeira.
Parmelia-saxatilis-2-1 Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach.
Corticolous and on rocks; common.
Lobes ridged; pseudocyphella forming a reticulate net (mainly near the tips); isidia cylindrical to coralloid, sometimes covering the whole center. Cortex K+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow becoming orange to red, P+ yellow and then orange-red The very similar P. ernstiae is lobulate, strongly pruinose and corticolous. Distincted from P. sulcata and P. omphalodes by the presence of isidia.
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse.
Parmelia-saxatilis-5751 >Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach.
Parmelia-sulcata-02-11 Parmelia sulcata Taylor
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (sometimes saxicolous); very common.
Upper surface glaucous grey, with an coarse white reticulum, developping to green-grey soralia (mainly in the center of the thallus); lobe ends brownish; lower surface black, with numerous rhizines; medulla and soralia K+ orange-red, P+ orange.
Distincted from P. saxatlis by the lack of isidia and from P. omphalodes by the grey colour (the latter is brown).
Central Europe.
Parmelia-sulcata-8337 Parmelia sulcata Taylor
Parmeliella-testacea Parmeliella testacea Jörg.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (laurisilva).
Thallus squamulose with (usually) marginal soredia, knob-like, later forming a cracked surface covered with blue-grey granules. No spot reactions.
Portugal: Madeira.
Parmeliella-triptophylla-8597 Parmeliella triptophylla (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Initial stadium).
On Alnus glutinosa.
Central Europe; Austria: Vorarlberg.
(Identified by Eichler & Cezanne).
Parmeliella-triptophylla-8101 Parmeliella triptophylla (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Young stadium).
Austria: Alps.
Parmeliella-triptophylla-8094 Parmeliella triptophylla (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Adult stadium).
Austria: Alps.
Parmelina-carporrhizans Parmelina carporrhizans (Taylor) Wirth
Corticolous; on freestanding deciduous trees; rare.
Thallus adpressed, smooth, ± shiny; apothecia common, lower side oft the margins with black rhizinae. Cortex K+ yellow, medulla C+ red.
Austria: Alps.
Parmelina-quercina-var.-carporrhizans Parmelina carporrhizans (Taylor) Wirth
Parmelina-pastillifera-140829 Parmelina pastillifera (Harm.) Hale
Corticolous; on freestanding deciduous trees; mainly in higher altitudes; rare.
Lobes blue-grey, adpressed; soredia absent; isidia knob-like, flat or concave at apices (lower image); apothecia rare. Cortex K+ yellow; medulla C+ red. Very similar to P. tiliacea, but the latter has cylindrical isidia with tapered tips.
Austria: Alps.
Central Europe.
Parmelina-pastillifera Parmelina pastillifera (Harm.) Hale
Parmelina-tiliacea-140829 Parmelina tiliacea (Hoffm.) Hale
Corticolous; on deciduous trees; ± common.
Thallus smooth; lobes rounded; upper surface with globose (when young) to cylindrical or coralloid isidia with brown apices. Medulla K-, C+ red, Pd-.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Parmeliopsis-ambigua Parmeliopsis ambigua (Wulfen) Nyl.
Corticolous; on acid barks; common.
Thallus up to 4 cm in diameter; lobes up to 1 mm wide, adpressed, flat; centre lobeless but sorediose; apothecia not seen. No spot reactions (KC ± yellow). The species resembles to Parmelia mougeotii but the latter is P+ orange.
Central Europe.
Parmeliopsis-ambigu-8341 Parmeliopsis ambigua (Wulfen) Nyl.
Parmotrema-arnoldii-6145 Parmotrema arnoldii (Du Rietz) Hale
Corticolous; on deciduous trees.
Thallus grey, loosely attached to the substratum; lobes wavy, margins ascending; marginal soredia globose; with long black cilia on the margins; lower side with simple rhizines (not reaching the margins). Medulla K-, C-, KC+ red, Pd-.
France: Jura Mountains.
Parmotrema-arnoldii Parmotrema arnoldii (Du Rietz) Hale
Parmotremaaustrosinense Parmotrema austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale
On the bark of deciduous trees.
Namibia: Waterberg region.
(Identified by V. Wirth).
Parmotrema-crinitum-120916 Madeira_Queimadas____Elmarit___SL64mm____f5.6___ISO160___1-15sec___A___9_Bilder Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.) Choisy
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (laurisilva).
Thallus loosely attached; isidia mainly marginal (also laminal), partly connected with long black cilia (see small image); cilia also on lobe margins; lower side with a broad naked zone towards the margin.Medulla K+ yellow-orange, C-, KC+ yellow-orange, Pd+ yellow-orange.
Portugal: Madeira.
Parmotrema-crinitum-120916 Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.) Choisy
Parmotrema-perlatum-8174 Parmotrema perlatum (Huds.) Choisy
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (laurisilva).
Thallus up to 15 cm in diameter, loosely attached to the substratum only; lobes with ascending, undulate and incised margins, up to 1.5 cm wide; delimited soralia at the margins and tips; lower surface black, brown near the margins; here without rhizines (but sometimes with marginal cilia); apothecia not seen. Cortex K+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow, P+ orange.
Portugal: Madeira.
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera.
Parmotrema-perlatum-001 Parmotrema perlatum (Huds.) Choisy
Parmotrema-reticulatum-001 Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) Choisy
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (laurisilva).
Upper surface with a faint network of white pseudocyphellae. Soralia mainly at the ends of the lobes.
Portugal: Madeira.
Parmotrema-reticulatum-002 Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) Choisy
Parmotrema-robustum-7070a Parmotrema robustum (Degel.) Hale
On broad-lobed deciduous trees in shady environments (Laurisilva).
Thallus grey; lobes often inrolled, with rounded to globose soralia, usually at the tips of the lobes; margins with (few) black cilia; lower side black, a broad area without rhizinae. Cortex K+ yellow, Pd-; medulla K+ yellow, KC+ red, Pd+ orange.
Spain: Canary Islands.
Portugal: Madeira.
Parmotrema-robustum-4433 Parmotrema robustum (Degel.) Hale
Parmotrema-stuppeum-4182 Parmotrema stuppeum (Taylor) Hale
On basaltic rocks near the coast.
Thallus broad-lobed; lobes with marginal or apical soralia and (few) short cilia; soralia globose, becoming ± contiguous. Cortex K+ yellow, C-, Pd+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow --> red, C-, Pd yellow-orange.
Portugal: Madeira.
Parmotrema-tictorum-6768-001 Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale
On coastal rocks.
Thallus thin, loosely attached; lobes up to 2 cm broad, rounded, entire or notched; without cilia; isidia laminal, globose to cylindrical, concolourose, with brownish tips. Cortex K+ yellow; medulla C+ red, Pd+ yellow (!).
Portugal: Madeira.
Parmotrema-tinctorum-8002-002 Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale
Peltigera-canina-5670 Peltigera canina (L.) Willd.
On soil.
Thallus up to 20 cm diam; lobes up to 2.5 cm, covered with a white tomentum (at least marginal); lower side white, with flat veins and multibranched rhizines (see small image); apothecia saddle-shaped, brown. No spot reactions. (The similar P. membranacea has conspicuous veins and the rhizines are unbranched; P. praetextata has flattened isidia along cracks and the margins).
Sweden: Värmland.
Peltigera-collina-5453 Peltigera collina (Ach.) Schrader
On mossy trunks and rocks.
Margins ± raised, sorediate (soralia pale grey to bluish). Spot reactions negative.
Central Europe.
Peltigera-collina-8584 Peltigera collina (Ach.) Schrader
Central Europe; Germany; Bavaria: Alps.
Petligera-didactila-060819 Peltigera didactila (With.) Laundon
(sorediate stadium; young specimen).
On south exposed rocks.
Thallus consisting of a few lobes, rarely larger than 3 cm diam.; lobes rounded, with ascending margins; when young lobes with pale, laminal soralia (soredia coarse); soralia disappearing with age; then producing apothecia on the tips of erect and narrow lobes. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Peltigera-horizontalis-7996 Peltigera horizontalis (Huds.) Baumg.
Terricolous, between mosses; in wet and shaded habitats.
Thallus large, grey-brown when dry; lobes up to 2 cm wide; apothecia horizontal, discs flat. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Peltigera-hymenina-7997 Peltigera hymenina (Ach.) Delise ex Duby
Terricolous, between mosses; in wet and shaded habitats.
Thallus large (up to 15 cm); lobes 1-2 cm wide, margins ascending; apothecia longer than broad. Lower surface with usually delimited, ochraceous veins. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Peltigera-lepidophora-7233 Peltigera lepidophora (Nyl. ex Vain.) Bitter
On rough soil and mosses over basaltic rocks (diabase).
Thallus small (up to 20 mm diam.); lobes small (up to 10 mm wide), concave (shell-like), upper side smooth, with knob-like isidia; veins on the lower side indistinct. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(Coll/ident: Eichler/Cezanne).
Peltigera-leucophlebia Peltigera leucophlebia (Nyl.) Gyeln.
Amongst mossy rocks.
Thallus up to 20 cm diam.; lobes grey-brown when dry, green when wet (it is one of the rare Peltigera species with green photobionts); lobes large, up to 3.5 cm wide; with dark punctiform external cephalodia; lower side with distinct veins. No spot reactions.
Sweden: Dalarna.
Peltigera-malacea-8276 Peltigera malacea (Ach.) Funk
On mossy rocks (Basalt).
Lower side almost without rhizines and veins; upper side with a fine tometum. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany, Hesse: Rhön mountains.
Peltigera-neckeri-4763 Peltigera neckeri (Hepp. ex Müll. Arg.
On mossy soils.
Thallus up to 15 cm; upper surface of the lobes sparingly pruinose near the margins; lower side black whith dark veins (interstices white); apothecia common with very dark discs.No spot reactions.
Portugal: Madeira.
Peltigera-praetextata-160903 Peltigera praetextata (Floerke ex Sommerf.) Zopf
On mossy trunks of deciduous trees. Not collected.
Upper surface with schizidia (small, flat leaflets, see small photo on the right); schizidia on cracks and at the lobe margins; marginal parts with very small, adpressed hairs; rarely fertile. Spot reactions negative.
Central Europe; Gemany; Hesse: Taunus mountains (Wispertal).
Peltigera-praetextata-0609 Peltigera praetextata (Floerke ex Sommerf.) Zopf
On mossy soils; ± common.
Upper surface with schizidia (small, flat leaflets); schizidia on cracks and at the lobe margins; marginal parts with very small, adpressed hairs; rarely fertile. Spot reactions negative.
Central Europe; Gemany: Rheinland-Pfalz.
(Wet specimen).
Peltigera-praetextata-7479 Peltigera praetextata (Floerke ex Sommerf.) Zopf
Central Europe: Germany.
Peltigera-praetextata-5452-US Peltigera praetextata (Floerke ex Sommerf.) Zopf
Peltigera-rufescens-6026 Peltigera rufescens (Weiss) Humb.
On basaltic rocks and in calcareous environments.
Thallus ± rosette-forming, whitish tomentose; lobes in comparison with other Peltigera species small, adpressed; margins rising, crisped; lower surface with flattened veins; rhizines dark towards the center, white near the margins; apothecia not seen. Spot reactions negative.
Central Europe: Germany.
Peltigera-rufescens-6618 Peltigera rufescens (Weiss) Humb.
Peltigera-venosa-01 Peltigera venosa (L.) Hoffm.
On calcareous rocks and soils.
Thallus often consisting of a single lobe (± rounded). Apothecia marginal, horizontal.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(Collected by Dillenius; 1715!).
Peltigera-venosa-03 Peltigera venosa (L.) Hoffm.
(Collected by Dillenius; 1715!).
Pertusaria-albescens-2 Pertusaria albescens (Hudson) Choiy & Werner
Corticolous; on deciduous trees; not very common.
Thallus often zoned; soralia large and marginate (resembling to apothecia); without color reactions.
Central Europe: Germany.
Pertusaria-albescens Pertusaria albescens (Hudson) Choiy & Werner
Pertusaria-albescens-8282 Pertusaria albescens (Hudson) Choiy & Werner
Pertusaria-amara-7696 Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees; not very common.
Soralia KC+ violet, taste extremely bitter (difference to P. albescens).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Pertusaria-amara-8321 Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl.
Pertusaria-amara-160903a Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl.
Corticolous; on Acer pseudoplatanus.
Soralia KC+ violet, taste extremely bitter (difference to P. albescens).
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse: Taunus mountains (Wispertal).
Pertusaria-aspergilla-5738 Pertusaria aspergilla (Ach.) Laundon
On siliceous rocks.
Thallus thin, grey, cracked to areolate; with a white prothallus; soralia white, punctiform, sometimes confluenting. Thallus K± yellow-brown, KC-; thallus and soralia Pd+ rost-red (see small image).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Pertusaria-coccodes-8283 Pertusaria coccodes (Ach.) Nyl.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees; not very commonThallus grey to bright green grey; densely covered by isidia, resembling on frog eggs. Cortex K+ yellow, later red, C-, KC- to yellow-red, Pd-; medulla Pd+ yellow to orange.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Pertusaria-coccodes-1 Pertusaria coccodes (Ach.) Nyl.
Pertusaria-corallina-5820 Pertusaria corallina (L.) Arnold
On exposed basaltic rocks.
Thallus usually with a white prothallus, thick, covered with cylindric to coralloid isidia. Thallus K+ yellow, Pd+ orange.
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse: Rhön Mountains.
Pertusaria-flavicans-19.8.06 Pertusaria flavicans Lamy
On well-lit silicatic rocks.
Thallus thick, warted-areolate; soralia at first delimited, later becoming confluent; soredia granular; apothecia not seen. Soralia K-, C+ orange, Pd-.Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(150 m above sea level).
Pertusaria-flavida-1 Pertusaria flavida (DC.) Laundon
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (e.g. Carpinus betulus); ± rare.
Thallus with an yellowish tinge (yellow-green, yellow-grey, yellow-white), areolate to warted; isidia small, globose. Thallus KC+ orange, C+ orange, Pd-. (Resembling to Pyrrhospora quernea, but this species is not isidiate. P.coccodes: Isidia taller, Cortex K+ yellow --> red, Pd+ orange).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Pertusaria-flavida-7499 Pertusaria flavida (DC.) Laundon
Pertusaria-hymenea-8320 Pertusaria hymenea (Ach.) Schaer.
On Fagus sylvatica.
Thallus cracked and tuberculate; apothecia developing from semi-globose warts (-2 mm); discs ± rounded, often widening (P. pertusa has narrower discs). Thallus C+ yellow, KC+ orange.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Pertusaria-lactea-5746 Pertusaria lactea (L.) Arnold
On siliceous rocks (Grauwacke).
Thallus cracked or warted; areoles irregularly rounded, convex; soralia delimited by a thalline exiple, up to 1.5 mm diam., whitish (paler than the thallus). Thallus and soralia K-, KC+ red, C+ red, Pd-.
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse.
Pertusaria-lactea-111009 Pertusaria lactea (L.) Arnold
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Pertusaria-lecanorodes-395 Pertusaria lecanorodes (Ach.) Schaer.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees; in dark and humid environments (Laurisilva).
Thallus yellow-grey; apothecia common, up to 1 mm, disc brownish or rose, concave, margin lecanorine. Thallus K+ yellow, C+ yellow-orange, KC-, P-; epihymenium K+ violet.
Portugal: Madeira.
(1100 m above sea level).
Pertusaria-leioplaca-5730 Pertusaria leioplaca DC.
Corticolous; on smooth bark of broad-lobed deciduous trees (e.g. Carpinus betulus).
Thallus thin, green-grey; apothecia usually single in warts, warts up to 2 mm diam., semi-globose with spreading base, top ± flat, disc small, perithecia-like. Thallus K+ yellow, KC+ yellow, C-, Pd + deep orange or Pd-.
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse.
Pertusaria-pertusa Pertusaria ;pertusa&nbsp(Weigel) Tuck.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (freestanding and in forests); not very common.
Thallus grey-green to grey, weakly shiny, uneven to warty; apothecia numerous, one to several in semiglobose warts (0.8-2 mm), walls steep, disc pointed, black. Cortex K± yellowish, Pd-; medulla K+ yellow, Pd+ orange-red.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Pertusaria-pertusa-8313 Pertusaria pertusa (Weigel) Tuck.
Pertusaria-pustulata-Solms-1850 Pertusaria pustulata (Ach.) Duby
On Fagus sylvatica.
Thallus thin, smooth, later fissured; apothecia developing from ± flat warts (- 1mm), 1 (-3) apothecia per wart; disc punctiform, later widening. Thallus K+, C+, KC+ yellow, Pd+ orange.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(Collected by Graf zu Solms; 1869!
Identificated by Eichler/Cezanne).