Flechtenbilder (M-N)

Maronea constans Sol 1850 Maronea constans (Nyl.) Hepp
On the bark of Fagus sylvatica.
Thallus verrucose; apothecial disc flat; margin distinct, from the colour of the thallus.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(Collected by Graf zu Solms, 1866!
Identifiied by Eichler & Cezanne).
Megalospora-tuberculosa Megalospora tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman
On Laurus spec.; in humid environments (Laurisilva).
Thallus thick, cracked; covered with numerous tubercles (at first corticate, later breaking down to soralia); apothecial disc flat, brown; margin paler; up to 3 mm diam.; hypothecium pale; epihymenium orange-brown, granular; asci one-spored; spores 4 to 10-septate.
Thallus K+ yellow.
Portugal: Madeira.
(950 m above sea level).
Melanelia-hepatizon Melanelia hepatizon (Ach.) A. Thell
On granitic rocks.
Apothecia frequent, margin crenulate. Pycnidia conspicuous, sessile, black, club-like, on margins of lobes. Medulla K+ yellow, P+ yellow.
Sweden: Dalarna.
Melanelixia-fuliginosa-5972 Melanelixia fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) O. Blanco et al.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (usually on the bole), rarely saxicolous; ± common.
Lobes up to 3 mm wide, shiny; covered densely with isidia cylindrical, simple or coralloid; apothecia rare, with isidiate margins. Medulla C+ red. Melanohalea elegantula has a pale lower side and the medulla is K-. Melanohalea exasperatula has club-like isidia and no spot reactions. The isidia of Melanohalea exasperata are warty, with cratered apices. M. subargentifera/ M. subaurifera have a C+ red reacting medulla like M. fuliginosa, but are soredious.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Melanelixia-fuliginosa-7628 Melanelixia fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) O. Blanco et al.
Melanelixia-glabra-001 Melanelixia glabra (Schaer.) O. Blanco et al.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees.
Thallus rosette-forming, up to 10 cm diameter; lobes up to 5 mm wide, uneven, often marginally ascending, young parts with fine whitish hairs; lower side black (pale brown at the margin); apothecia numerous, up to 15 mm diameter; margin crenate, with white hairs. Medulla C+ red.
Austria: Alps.
Melanelixia-glabra-2050 Melanelixia glabra (Schaer.) O. Blanco et al.
Melanelixia-glabra-2050a Melanelixia glabra (Schaer.) O. Blanco et al.
Melanelixia-glabratula-Wimasee-080120 Melanelixia glabratula (Lamy) Sandler & Arup
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (usually on the bole), rarely saxicolous; ± common.
Lobes up to 3 mm wide, shiny; isidia cylindrical, simple or coralloid; apothecia rare, with isidiate margins. Medulla C+ red.The very similar M. fuliginosa is darker, covered densely with isidia in the center (obscuring the lobes), always saxicolous.Melanohalea elegantula has a pale lower side and the medulla is K-. Melanohalea exasperatula has club-like isidia and no spot reactions. The isidia of Melanohalea exasperata are warty, with cratered apices. M. subargentifera/ M. subaurifera have a C+ red reacting medulla like M. glabratula, but are soredious.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Melanelixia-subargentifera-002 Melanelixia subargentifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees; ± rare.
Lobes adpressed, 2-4 mm wide, small whitish hairs at the tips of younger lobes, pruinose in parts; soralia bursting out of warts, laminal and marginal, confluenting in the center sometimes. Medulla C+ red.The only brown Melanelixia with hairs (Melanohalea glabra also with hairs but without soralia), Melanelixia subaurifera, glabratula and Melanohalea exasperatula with isidia.
Central Europe: Austria.
Melanelixia-subargentifera-001 Melanelixia subargentifera: Haare (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.
Melanelixia-subargentifera-7763 Melanelixia subargentifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.
Central Europe; Germany: North Rhine Westphalia.
Melanelixia-subargentifera-7763a Melanelixia subargentifera: Hairs (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.
Melanelixia-subaurifera-001 Melanelixia subaurifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees.
Thallus ± adpressed, often rosette-forming; upper surface with laminal soralia and/or isidia (isidia globose to cylindrical, derived from soredia; leaving a yellow area when abraded). Medulla and soredia K-, C+ carmine-red, KC+ red, Pd-. (Resembles to Melanelixia glabratula but the latter lacks soredia, isidia are branched to coralloid, upper side mor shiny. The similar M. subargentifera is sorediate-warty, not yellowish and covered with white hairs - especially on young lobes. M. glabra lacks soralia/isidia and has often apothecia).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Melanelixia-subaurifera Melanelixia subaurifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.
Melanohalea-elegantula-002 Melanohalea elegantula (Zahlbr.) O. Blanco et al.
Corticolous; on freestanding nutrient-enriched deciduous trees, usually on twigs; rarely saxicolous.
Lobes up to 2 mm wide, adpressed; isidia covering the center, solid, small, cylindrical to coralloid; lower surface pale brown; apothecia not seen. Reagent tests: negative. Similar is M. exasperatula (no spot reactions too), but isidia clavate; M. exasperata has warty isidia with concave tips; Melanelixia glabratula is also very similar, but lower side black and medulla C+ red.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Melanohalea-elegantula-111212-Kalok Melanohalea elegantula (Zahlbr.) O. Blanco et al.
Melanohalea-exasperata-001 Melanohalea exasperata (De Not.) O. Blanco et al.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees.Lobes adpressed, often longitudinally wrinkled; isidia knob-like, with flat or concave apices; margins of apothecia also isidiate.  Spot reactions negative. The cratered isidia are distinctive to other brown Parmelias.
Austria: Alps.
Melanohalea-exasperata-110830-M.Heerd Melanohalea exasperata (De Not.) O. Blanco et al.
Melanohalea-exasperatula Melanohalea exasperatula (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.
Corticolous; on freestanding deciduous trees, often on branches; rarely sacicolous; common.
Lobes loosely attached, ± shiny, brown to olive-brown (olive-green when wet); lower surface pale rose-brownish; isidia simple, flat, club-like, hollow; apothecia rare.
No spot reactions. Resembles to Melanelixia glabratula (but here medulla reacting C+ red, isidia not clavate but cylindrical, simple to coralloid); Melanohalea elegantula is similar too but the isidia are cylindrical (not club-like).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Melanohalea-exasperatula-001 Melanohalea exasperatula (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.
Melanohalea-laciniatula-7564 Melanohalea laciniatula (Flagey ex H. Olivier.) O. Blanco et al.
On free-standing decidious trees (Acer pseudoplatanus).
Thallus up to 5 cm; the center is covered with small ± arising folioles; the marginal lobes are flat and ± adpressed. No spot reactions.M. exasperatula is covered with small and flat isidia (no folioles).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Melanohalea-olivacea-4906 Melanohalea olivacea (L.) O. Blanco et al.
Corticolous; on freestanding deciduous trees (mainly birch).
Thallus matt to slightly shiny; lobes with pseudocyphellae towards the apices, without isidia and soralia; apothecia at the thallus center (the similar M. septentrionalis has apothecia up to the margin); apothecial rim crenulate. Medulla P+ red.
Sweden: Värmland, Dalarna.
Melanohalea-septentrionalis Melanohalea septentrionalis (Lynge.) O. Blanco et al.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees (mainly Betula and Salix).
Thallus shiny, without pseudocyphellae; apothecia covering the whole thallus (apothecia of the similar M. olivacea are restricted to the thalline center); apothecial margin sometimes disappearing, scarcely crenulate. Medulla P+ red.
Sweden: Värmland.
Melaspilea-granitophila-Teu3169 Melaspilea granitophila (Th. Fr.) Coppins
On siliceous rocks.
Thallus inconspicuous, often visible only near the apothecia; apothecia 0.1-0.3 mm, rounded to elangate, rarely branches; disc visible; margin conspicuous.Spot reactions negative.
Central Europe: Germany.
(Coll/ident: D. Teuber).
Menegazzia-terebrata Menegazzia terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees; in forests.
Thallus up to 10 cm diam., often rosette-forming; lobes adpressed, 0.5-1.5 mm wide, shiny, sorediate, radiating, branched, intended; margins rounded, often brownish; upper surface with distinct rounded perforations (up to 1 mm); apothecia very rare. Cortex K+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow, Pd+ yellow-orange.
Austria: Alps.
Menegazzia-terebrata-1-03 Menegazzia terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
Micarea-denigrata-Heerd05 Micarea denigrata (Fr.) Hedl.
On weathered fences.
Thallus consisting of pale green convex areoles; apothecia common, black, convex; margin inconspicuous, soon disappearing; pycnidia numerous, black, often with white apices (extruded conidia). Hymenium C+ orange-red.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(Collected by E. Heerd).
Micarea-prasina-CE8064 Micarea prasina Fr.
On bark, rottened wood, frequent.
Thallus consisting of granules or fineliy isidiate; apothecia 0.2-0.4 mm diam., subglobose, without margin. No spot reactions.
Cenral Europe: Germany.
(Coll/ident: Eichler & Cezanne).
Buellia-badia-150311 Monerolechia badia (Fr.) Kalb
On basaltic rocks (parasitizing on Xanthoparmelia spec.).
Thallus grey to brown; apothecia often crowded; disc flat to slightly convex; margin persistent. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(Ident: Eichler & Cezanne).
Montanelia-disjuncta-01 Montanelia disjuncta (Erichsen) Divakar, A. Crespo, M. Wedin & Essl.
On silicatic (acid) rocks.
Lobes narrow, convex (flattened and shiny near the ends); soralia laminal and marginal, globose, constricted at the base, emerging from isidia. Medulla C-.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Montanelia-sorediata-6788a Montanelia sorediata (Ach.) Divakar, A. Crespo, M. Wedin & Essl.
On silicatic rocks (granite).
Thallus adpressed, up to 5 cm diam.; lobes matt, flat, linear; soralia ± globose, on the tips of ascending lobes (see lower image), not confluenting. No spot reactions. (The similar M. disjuncta has lobes widening and shiny at the tips; soralia often confluenting in the center).
Sweden: Värmland.
Montanelia-sorediata-6788 Montanelia sorediata (Ach.) Divakar, A. Crespo, M. Wedin & Essl.
Mycobilimbia-sphaeroides-Teu 130704 Mycobilimbia carneoalbida (Müll. Arg.) Ekman & Printzen
On old rough barked trees and over mosses.
Thallus whitish to pale greenish, granular-warty (not sorediate); apothecia semiglobose, later globose; margin disappearing soon. Spot reactions negative.
(Coll/ident. by D. Teuber as M. sphaeroides).
Mycoblastus-sanguinarius Mycoblastus sanguinarius (L.) Norman
On birch trees in moist situations.
Abraded medulla red (see on the lower right site).
Central Europe: Germany, Hesse, Rhön Mountains.
Naetrocymbe-punctiformis-CE743 Naetrocymbe punctiformis (Pers.) R.C. Harris
On bark of deciduous trees.
Thallus immersed in the substrate or absent; perithecia hemispherical (0.15-0.4 mm diam.). Spot reactions negative.
Central Europe: Germany.
Nephroma-arctium Nephroma arcticum (L.) Torss.
On mossy soils.
Thallus up to 10 cm diam., rosette-forming; lobes up to 1,5 cm, margins ascending, undulate, entire, rounded; upper surface green, smooth; with dark external cepalodia (resembling warts); lower side whitish-brown, with a dark tomentum; apothecia not seen. Thallus K+ yellow, Pd+ yellow. (Resembles to some of the Peltigera species but lacks rhizines and veins. Furthermore Peltigera species have no spot reactions).
Sweden: Dalarna.
Nephroma-arctium-4972 Nephroma arcticum (L.) Torss.
Nephroma areolatum 6590bb Nephroma areolatum P. James & F.J. White
On Laurus spec.; in humid habitats (Laurisilva).
Thallus up to 10 cm diam., grey-brown to brown, lobes up to 2 cm wide, losely adpressed, often ± elongated; upper surface faintly reticulate-sulcate (see third photo), soredia and isidia absent; margins rarely entire, with few to numerous folioles; pycnidia frequent, mainly marginal, sometimes laminal, on short projections; medulla white; lower surface dark brown-black, areolate-scabrid and obscurely ridged, naked or in part tomentose; photobiont Nostoc; apothecia common, rounded, disc red-brown-black, margins entire, dorsal surface conspicuously scabrid-areolate and ridged. No spot reactions.
Portugal: Madeira (endemic).
Nephroma-areolatum-05-1 Nephroma areolatum P. James & F.J. White
Corticolous; on deciduous trees, in humid habitats (Laurisilva).
Portugal: Madeira (endemic).
Nephroma areolatum 5076a Nephroma areolatum P. James & F.J. White
On Laurus spec.
Portugal; Madeira: near Ribeiro Frio.


Nephroma areolatum 5076b Nephroma areolatum P. James & F.J. White
On Laurus spec.
Upper surface faintly reticulate-sulcate (not as obvious as in N. sulcatum).
Portugal; Madeira: near Ribeiro Frio.
Nephroma areolatum 6590a Nephroma areolatum P. James & F.J. White
On Laurus spec.
Portugal; Madeira: near Ribeiro Frio.
Nephroma areolatum 6590b Nephroma areolatum P. James & F.J. White
On Laurus spec.
Apothecial rim entire, with a + raised thalline cuff.
Portugal; Madeira: near Ribeiro Frio.
Nephroma areolatum 6590c Nephroma areolatum P. James & F.J. White
On Laurus spec.
Dorsal surface of an apothecium conspicuously scabrid-areolate and ridged.
Portugal; Madeira: near Ribeiro Frio.
Nephroma areolatum 6590d Nephroma areolatum P. James & F.J. White
On Laurus spec.
Margnal pycnidia.
Portugal; Madeira: near Ribeiro Frio.
Nephroma foliolatum 3302a Nephroma foliolatum P. James & F.J. White
Corticolous; on a Laurus twig, in humid habitats (Laurisilva).
Thallus up to to 6 cm diam, red-brown; lobes rather narrow, 0.3-1 cm broad, fragile, thin, mostly closely adpressed, ± imbricate at the centre; upper surface smooth, ± shining or faintly reticulate but without well-defined sulcae, lacking isidia and soredia, but often withmarginal scattered or rarely clustered, adpressed and crenulate folioles; margins irregular; lower surface ± smooth, occasionally striate-ridged, persistently naked, pale buff, becoming darker brown towards the median part of older lobes; photobiont Nostoc; apothecia usually frequent, disc ± rounded, red-brown to black, margins ± entire or irregularly crenulate, dorsal surface smooth, not areolate-cracked. No spot reactions.
Portugal: Madeira.
Nephroma foliolatum 3302b Nephroma foliolatum P. James & F.J. White
Corticolous; on a Laurus twig, in humid habitats (Laurisilva).

Portugal: Madeira.
Nephroma-helveticum-Poiso-1.8.05 Nephroma helveticum Ach.
(together with Degelia plumbea, Pannaria rubiginosa, Ochrolechia pallescens).
Corticolous; on deciduous trees, in humid habitats (Laurisilva)
Fertile lobes and thalline exiple of apothecia pectinate; dorsal surface of apothecia scabrid to honeycombed. No spot reactions. The pectination is distinctive with other Nephromas.
Portugal: Madeira.
Nephroma-helveticum Nephroma helveticum Ach.
Lower side.
(Left side: apothecium with pectinate thalline exciple; right side: dorsal surface of an apothecium (scabrid).
Nephroma helveticum 6354a Nephroma helveticum Ach.
On Cupressus spec.
Portugal: Madeira.
Nephroma helveticum 6354b Nephroma helveticum Ach.
On Cupressus spec.
Portugal: Madeira.
Nephroma laevigatum 6137a Nephroma laevigatum Ach.
Corticolous, on Pinus canariensis; in humid habitats (Laurisilva).
Thallus loosely adpressed, up to 15 cm diam, grey-brown to deep chestnut brown; lobes broad, up to 1 cm wide, robust, thick, rather tough and coriaceous; upper surface ± smooth, without sulcae or reticulations, soredia or isidia; margins entire; lower surface matt, smooth to longitudinally striate-ridged to undulate, rarely subpubescent; medulla pale to golden yellow, rarely patchily developed entirely white; photobiont Nostoc; apothecia common, rounded to reniform, up to 1 cm, disc red-brown, margins entire, with a ± raised thalline cuff, dorsal surface conspicuously scabrid-areolate and ridged. Medulla K+ purple (yellow parts). The commonest Nephroma in Macaronesia.
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera.
 Nephroma laevigatum 6557c Nephroma laevigatum Ach.
On Laurus spec.
Portugal: Madeira
Nephroma-parile Nephroma parile (Ach.) Ach.
Corticolous, muscicolous or rarely saxicolous.
Thallus loosely adpressed, bluish-grey to dark red-brown; with broad, flattened lobes, up to l cm wide; upper surface smooth, even; margins entire, subcrenulate, with pustular soralia, also spreading to the lamina; soredia bluish grey to brown, coarsely granular; isidia absent; lower side entirely naked or in part subpubescent, rarely tomentose; photobiont Nostoc; apothecia rare. No spot reactions.
Austria: Alps.
Nephroma-resupinatum-8578 Nephroma resupinatum (L.) Ach.
Corticolous, saxicolous or muscicolous; in humid habitats (Laurisilva).
Thallus up to 10 cm diam; lobes broad, up to 1.7 cm wide, robust, loosely adpressed; upper surface smooth, mostly undulate, uniformly pubescent; margins entire, rounded to crenulate; with flattened phyllidia (isidia); lower surface pale tan, markedly tomentose, with scattered, raised, white papillae; apothecia frequent, bearing lobes markedly recurved, up to 1.5 cm diam, disc ± rounded, brown, margins ± entire, dorsal surface tomentose. No spot reactions. Distinct from other Nephromas by the pubescent upper surface and the markedly whitish tomentose lower side, with irregular papillae.
Central Europe; Germany; Bavaria: Alps.
Nephroma-resupinatum-8578a Nephroma resupinatum (L.) Ach.
Details: Apothecium, tomentum, flattened isidia.
Nephroma-resupinatum-8583 Nephroma resupinatum (L.) Ach.
On Acer pseudoplatanus.
Wet specimen.
Central Europe; Germany: Alps.
Nephroma sulcatum 7839 Nephroma sulcatum P. James & F.J. White
Corticolous; on Erica arborea.
Thallus robust, up to 8 cm diam, bluish grey to grey-brown; lobes broad, up to l.5 cm wide, adpressed, tough; upper surface reticulate (pseudocyphellae), sulcae prominent, forming a coarse reticulum (similar to Parm. sulcata); margins entire; isidia usually laminal, confined to sulcae, grey-brown, coarsely granular, terete to digitate, often stalked and branching to form dense coralloid clusters; soredia absent; lower surface naked at the margins, pubescent towards the centre; apothecia not seen.
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera.
Nephroma sulcatum Nephroma sulcatum P. James & F.J. White
Corticolous; on deciduous trees, in humid habitats (Laurisilva).
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera.
Nephroma sulcatum 5852 Nephroma sulcatum P. James & F.J. White
On Pinus canriensis.
Spain; Canary Islands: El Hierro.
Nephroma sulcatum 7839b Nephroma sulcatum P. James & F.J. White
On Erica arborea.
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera.
Nephroma-tangeriense-01 Nephroma tangeriense (Maheu & A. Gillet) Zahlbr.
Corticolous, terricolous or saxicolous in humid habitats (Laurisilva).
Thallus closely adpressed, forming compact rosettes, up to 9 cm diam, pale grey-brown to deep brown-black, lobes up to 0.6 cm wide, fragile, thin, papyraceous; upper surface smooth, even or partly undulate, without sulcae or reticulations, soredia or isidia, but developing scattered ± adpressed or ascending crenulate laminal folioles; margins entire, often ± ascending and crisped, frequently developing horizontal or ascending folioles; lower surface matt, smooth to ridged-undulate, pale at the margins becoming brown-black towards the centre, without a tomentum; medulla pale yellow to yellow-orange; photobiont Nostoc;  apothecia rare. Medulla K+ violet to purple-red. Distinction from other Nephromas: Lobes frequently with horizontal or ascending folioles; medulla yellow; K+ purple (see second image); lower surface without a tomentum.
Portugal: Madeira.
Nephroma tangeriense 5837 Nephroma tangeriense (Maheu & A. Gillet) Zahlbr.
Portugal: Madeira.
Nephroma tangeriense 6275b Nephroma tangeriense (Maheu & A. Gillet) Zahlbr.
On volcanic rocks.
Portugal: Madeira.
Nephroma-venosum-02 Nephroma venosum Degel.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees, in humid habitats (Laurisilva).
Thallus up to 10 cm diam; upper surface grey to chestnut brown, ± distinctly wrinkled-reticulate, without lobules; lower side not pubescent or tomentose, ridged- undulate; medulla yellow (lower image; white in part only); apothecia not rare. Yellow parts of the medulla K+ red, Pd+ orange. The similar N. tangeriense has numerous folioles, N. parile is not wrinkled-reticulate.
Portugal: Madeira.
Nephroma-venosum-01 Nephroma venosum Degel.
Normandina-pulchella-Henze-1107 Normandina pulchella (Borrer) Nyl.
Corticolous; on mosses in humid habitats.
Thallus glaucous-grey; lobes (squamules) small, 1-3 mm, rounded, ear-like; margins raised, becoming sorediate (soredia may spread over the lobes also); apothecia not seen. Spot reactions negative.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.