Flechtenbilder (Ch-Cy)

Chaenotheca-brunneola-8000 Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
On rotted wood of Abies alba.
Thallus inconspicuous or immersed; apothecia globose (-1.6 mm diameter); stalk up to 2 mm tall, sometimes branched, shiny black, epruinose.
Thallus Pd+ yellow.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Chaenotheca-chrysocephala-8944a Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr.
On bark of Quercus petraea.
Thallus consisting of yellow to yellow-greenish granules; apothecia stalked (up to 1.5 mm tall), stalk dark brown, upper part yellowish pruinose; head conical, with a brownish spore mass, lower part yellowish pruinose (name: golden head). No spot reactions.
(Ch. ferruginea is mustard-yellow in parts but the stalks and heads are never pruinose).
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse: Taunus mountains (Wispertal).
Chaenotheca-chrysocephala-8948b Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr.
On bark of Quercus petraea.
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse: Taunus mountains (Wispertal).
Chaenotheca-chrysocephala-02 Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr.
On the bark of Abies alba, Quercus petraea.
Thallus consisting of yellow to yellow-greenish granules; apothecia stalked (up to 1.5 mm tall), stalk dark brown, upper part yellowish pruinose; head conical, with a brownish spore mass, lower part yellowish pruinose (name: golden head).
No spot reactions.
(Ch. ferruginea is mustard-yellow in parts but the stalks and heads are never pruinose).
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Chaenotheca-ferruginea-160903 Chaenotheca ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.
On Quercus petraea.
Thallus granular- verrucose, whitish-grey, with mustard-yellow patches; apothecia stalked (up to 1.5 mm tall); stalks black, shiny, apruinose; head conical, whith a dark yellow to brownish spore mass; true exiple well developed, dark, apruinose; often infertile. Yellow patches K+ red.
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse: Taunus mountains (Wispertal).
Chaenotheca-ferruginea-8634 Chaenotheca ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.
On Acer pseudoplatanus.
Thallus granular- verrucose, whitish-grey, with mustard-yellow patches; apothecia stalked (up to 1.5 mm tall); stalks black, shiny, apruinose; head conical, whith a dark yellow to brownish spore mass; true exiple well developed, dark, apruinose; often infertile. Yellow patches K+ red.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Chaenotheca-ferruginea-8059 Chaenotheca ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.
On the basis of oak trees.
Central Europe.
Chaenotheca-furfuracea Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell
In bark crannies of old oak trees.
Thallus yellow-green, granular to leprose; apothecia globose, stalked (stalks up to 3mm; with thalline colour). No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Chaenotheca-trichialis-8638 Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
On Tilia spec.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Chaenotheca-trichialis-CE4507 Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
On deciduous trees.
Central Europe: Germany.
Chrysothrix-candelaris-525 Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) Laundon
Corticolous, in shaded crevices of rough-barked deciduous trees.
Thallus leprose, diffuse, colour from bright golden yellow to greenish yellow.
K- (or orange), C-, Pd- (or orange).
Distiguished from Candelariella species by the leprose thallus.
Austria; Alps: Tirol.
Chrysothrix-chlorina Chrysothrix chlorina (Ach.) Laundon
On acidic rocks (sandstone).
Thallus thick and granular (see small image). Psilolechia lucida is very similar and prefers the same habitats but the latter covers more sheltered and shaded rocks.
No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Baden-Württemberg.
Chrysothrix-chlorina-111009 Chrysothrix chlorina (Ach.) Laundon
Circinaria-caesiocinerea-6799d Circinaria caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Nordin, Savic & Tibell
On nutrient enriched rocks.
Thallus thick, cracked-areolate, matt; apothecia crater-like; disk black, becoming expanded with age; margin thin, persistent. No spot reactions. Resembles to A. cinerea (K+ red, Pd+ orange; apothecial margin thick); A. calcarea is brighter.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse. 150 m above sea level.
(Coll/ident: Eichler/Cezanne).
Circinaria-calcarea-1208 Circinaria calcarea (L.) Nordin, Savic & Tibell
On calcareous rocks (Muschelkalk).
Thallus whitish-grey, up to 10 cm in diam.; consisting of areoles, in the outer parts of the thallus radially orientated; apothecia irregular in shape, one or more in an areole, crater-like when young, rarely emergent; disc black, whitish pruinose; margin uneven, slightly rised, inconspicuous. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Circinaria-contorta-subsp.-contorta-7956 Circinaria contorta (Hoffm.) Nordin, Savic & Tibell subsp. contorta
On calcareous rocks.
Thallus thick, greyish (the similar A. calcarea is chalky-white), cracked-areolate; upper surface scurfy; apothecia in the center of an areole, immersed, rarely slightly sessile; disc black with a thick white pruina; spores almost globose. No spot reactions.
Germany: Hesse.
Circinaria-contorta-subsp.-hoffmanniana-6675 Circinaria contorta (Hoffm.) Nordin, Savic & Tibell subsp. hoffmaniana (Ekman & Fröberg)
Areoles angled (ssp. contorta: rounded)
Circinaria-contorta-var.-albocincta.-8467-01 

Circinaria contorta var. albocincta Steiner
On volcanic rocks.
Thallus consisting of merging areoles; more narrow and smaller than on the typus specimen (C. contorta s. str.); upper surface flat, olive-green; apothecia black, flat, immersed; margin elevated and whithish pruinose.
Thallus K+ orange-red (with crystal needles); Pd+ yellow-orange.
Portugal: Madeira.

Circinaria-contorta-var.-albocincta-8467-02  Circinaria contorta var. albocincta Steiner
Circinaria-contorta-albocincta-8467  Circinaria contorta var. albocincta Steiner
Microscopic sections.
Circinaria-contorta-var.-albocincta-8467b  Circinaria contorta var. albocincta Steiner
Asci with "semolina".
Circinaria-contorta-var-albocincta-8467 Circinaria contorta var. albocincta Steiner
Chemical reactions.
Cladia-retipora-01 Cladina retipora (Labill.) Nyl.
Terricolous.
New Zealand.
Cladonia-arbuscula-5952a Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Flot.
On granitic rock.
Podetia up to 8 cm, greenish-grey to yellowish-grey, not sorediate, not corticate, richely branched (tri- or tetrachotomous, branches orientated in one direction), branching usually tetrachotomus; axils open; apothecia brown, rare. Podetia K-, KC+ yellow, Pd+ red.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-bellidiflora-5001 Cladonia bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaer.
On acid soil.
Podetia yellow-green, up to 5 cm, unbranched, with pointed apices (no cups), not sorediate but densely covered with squamules, becoming corticate-granular upwards; apothecia red, often clustered, sometimes on short projections (see image below).
Thallus K-, Pd-.
Sweden: Dalarna.
Cladonia-borealis-6955 Cladonia borealis Stenroos
On mossy rocks (granite).
Thallus consisting of small basal squamules and podetia (up to 2 cm); podetia corticate, with granules and very tiny squamules (not elevated); cups tapering gradually to the base; apothecia red, on rims of the cups. Thallus K-, Pd-, KC+ yellow.
(The very similar Cl. coccifera is distinguished by the elvated tiny squamules on the podetia).
Sweden; Värmland.
Cladonia-botrytes-6925-01 Cladonia botrytes (Hagen) Willd.
On rotted wood of conifers.
Thallus up to 1.5 cm; podetia usually unbranched (or with few branches towards the tips), not sorediate, corticate towards the base, verrucose-areolate on the upper part; without cups (difference to the similar C. carneola) but always with terminal apothecia. Colour of the apothecia pale brown to yellowish grey, with a pinkish tinge. Without spot reactions.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-cariosa-01 Cladonia cariosa (Ach.) Spreng.
Terricolous, on mosses.
Podetia green-grey, up to 2 cm, without cups, often branched near the tips, partly decorticate, with corticate granules and/or squamules, not sorediate; apothecia at the tips of podetia, large, clustered. Thallus K+ yellow (difference to the similar Cl. macrophylla), Pd+ yellow.
Central Europe: Germany (Hesse).
Cladonia-cariosa-5675 Cladonia cariosa (Ach.) Spreng.
Cladonia-cenotea 5666 Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer.
Terricolous.
Podetia grey-green, up to 2 cm, entirely farinose-sorediate, occasionally with some basal squamules; with perforate cups; apothecia brown, rare. Thallus K-, Pd-.
Sweden: Dalarna.
Cladonia-cervicornis-cervicornis-6168-01 Cladonia cervicornis subsp. cervicornis (Ach.) Flot.)
On poor acid soil. Thallus consisting of squamules, upper side dark green, lower side white to bright brown; podetia inconspicuous, partly with squamules; with regular cups; apothecia brown. Thallus K, Pd+ orange.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-cervicornis-ssp.-cervicornis-8237 Cladonia cervicornis subsp. cervicornis (Ach.) Flot.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-cervicornis-subsp.-verticillata-130602 Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti
Terricolous.
Podetia brownish-green, up to 1 cm, not sorediate; squamules usually absent; cups regular, with new podetia growing from the center of the cups; apothecia brown.
Thallus K-, Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany.
Cladonia-cervicornis-verticillata-4921-01 Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-chlorophaea-6931 Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Wirth
Cladonia-ciliata-111009 Cladonia ciliata Stirt.
On granitic rocks, between mosses.
Podetia 3-6 cm tall, branching usually dichotoumus; axils open.
Thallus Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Cladonia-coccifera-7982 Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd.
On poor, acid soils; sometimes on mossy rocks.
Thallus yellow-grey, yellow-green; podetia up to 2 cm tall, covered with corticate granules and some sticking out squamules; cups irregular, up to 1 cm wide; basal squamules up to 5 mm, lower surface white.
Thallus K-, C-, KC+ yellow, Pd-.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-coccifera-8278 Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd.
Central Europe; Germany, Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Cladonia-coniocraea-090924 Cladonia coniocraea (Flörke) Sprengel
Terricolous and on rotting wood.
Podetia grey-green, 1-3 cm tall, squamulose at the base, sorediate above; pointed or sometimes with narrow cups; apothecia brown.
Thallus Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse; common.
Cladonia-cornuta Cladonia cornuta (L.) Hoffm.
Terricolous.
Podetia grey-green, up to 4 cm, farinose-sorediate at the upper half, corticate and (rarely) squamulose at the lower half; without cups (pointed); apothecia rare, brown. Thallus K-, Pd+ red.
Sweden: Värmland, Dalarna.
Cladonia-cornuta-4918-01 Cladonia cornuta (L.) Hoffm.
Central Europe: Germany.
Cladonia-crispata-6922-01 Cladonia crispata (Ach.) Flot.
Terricolous.
Podetia up to 5 cm, grey-green, not sorediate, sometimes pale reticulated, squamulose near the base; Cups with short spines, one of them usually elongates into a new podetium; apothecia brown. No spot reactions.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-crispata-cetrariiformis-4961-01 Cladonia crispata (Ach.) Flot.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-deformis-4920 Cladonia deformis (L.) Hoffm.
Terricolous.
Podetia yellow-green, up to 5 cm, farinose-sorediate, cups regular; apothecia/pycnidia red. UV-. (The similar Cl. sulphurina is without cups or they are irregular and with marginal proliferations: UV+ blue whitish).
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-deformis-gefingert Cladonia deformis (L.) Hoffm.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-digitata-8230a Cladonia digitata (L.) Hoffm.
On the base of Larix decidua.
Podetia grey-green, up to 1 cm, without or with irregular cups (often proliferating from the margins), farinose-sorediate (upper sides of cups corticate); basal squamules large (up to 1 cm diam.), only scarcely intended, lower surface white-sorediate (sometimes yellow-brownish near the base), margins upturned and also sorediate, apothecia/pycnidia red. Thallus K+ yellow, Pd+ orange.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-digitata-8230 Cladonia digitata (L.) Hoffm.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia dimorpha 8460a Cladonia dimorpha Hammer
On soil in the Laurisilva.
Thallus squamulose, persistent; podetia up to 3 cm tall, cup-forming; margins with long, branching, fissured  proliferations; apothecia brown. Thallus P+ red.
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera.
Ident. by H. Sipman.
Cladonia dimorpha 8460b Cladonia dimorpha Hammer
On soil in the Laurisilva.
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera.

Cladonia-fimbriata-8236 Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr.
Terricolous and on rotted wood.
Podetia up to 1.5 cm, grey-green, farinose-sorediate, basal not corticate, with small squamules; cups regular, abruptly joined to the long stalk; apothecia brown. Thallus K-. Pd+ red.
Central Europe: Germany; common.
Cladonia-floerkeana-8056 Cladonia floerkeana (Fr.) Flörke
Terricolous: on poor and acid soil.
Podetia up to 3 cm, grey-green, corticate, ocasionally granular-sorediate, usually with coarse granules or entirely squamulose; cups absent; apothecia big, red. Thallus K+ yellow or K-, Pd-.
Central Europe; Germany: Brandenburg.
Cladonia-floerkeana-7680 Cladonia floerkeana (Fr.) Flörke
Cladonia-foliacea-060902 Cladonia foliacea (Hud.) Willd.
On soils over volcanic rocks (Diabas).
Thalline squamules yellowish-green on upper side, recurved and deeply incised on the tips; lower side can be seen because of the curled squamules, whitish-yellowish; podetia not seen. Thallus K-, KC+ yellow, Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse
Cladonia-furcata-111009 Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad.
Terricolous; on acid soils; also on mossy rocks; ± common.
Podetia grey-green, very variable, ± dichotomously branched, completely corticate, often with a mosaic of whitish reticulations, usually perforate (axils sometimes open), podetial squamules absent or frequent (see image); tips pointed (never ending in cups); apothecia brown. Thallus K-, Pd+ rust-red.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-furcata-6069 Cladonia furcata (Huds.)
Schrad.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Cladonia-glauca-5656 Cladonia glauca Flörke
Terricolous, on mosses.
Podetia green-grey, up to 5 cm, without cups, mostly simple, often with a longitudinal fissure (see the right podetium); squamules common (mainly near the base, but also extending upwards), sorediate in upper part; apothecia/pycnidia brown, rare. No spot reactions.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-gracilis-8238 Cladonia gracilis subsp. gracilis (L.) Willd.
Terricolous.
Podetia grey-green, up to 6 cm, rarely branched (axils open), smooth (not sorediate), squamules rare; cups rare, narrow (usually with tips); apothecia brown. Thallus K-, P+ orange-red.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-gracilis-turbinata-7721 Cladonia gracilis subsp. turbinata (Ach.) Ahti
Terricolous, on mosses.
Podetia grey-green, up to 5 cm, rarely branched, smooth (not sorediate), squamules rare; often with cups, cups usually with marginal proliferations developping to new podetia; apothecia brown.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-grayi-5807 Cladonia grayi Merr. ex Sandst.
On basaltic rocks.
Podetia up to 2 cm, with coarse granules; brownish squamules near the base; cups regular, gradually tapered towards the base; surface within the cups with granules but never sorediate. Thallus K-, C-, P-, UV-. (The similar Cl. chlorophaea is Pd+ red and the cups are wider).
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse: Rhön Mountains.
Cladonia-humilis-080308 Cladonia humilis (With.) Laundon
On acid soils.
Thallus consisting of persistent basal squamules and podetia (up to 6 mm tall); podetia corticate basal, sorediate above; cups not very wide. Podetia K+ yellow, Pd+ red (Cl. humilis is the only European brown-fruited species that is sorediate and K+ yellow).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-humilis-7477 Cladonia humilis (With.) Laundon
Cladonia-macaronesica-5493 Cladonia macaronesica Ahti
On volcanic soils.
Branches yellow to yellow green, 2-6 cm; main stems at the base, than densely branched. K-, C-, KC+ yellow, Pd+ red (apical) P- at the base.
Spain; Canary Islands: Lanzarote.
(Collected by D. Erber).
Cladonia-macilenta-5673 Cladonia macilenta Hoffm.
Terricolous and amongst mosses on granitic rocks.
Podetia up to 3 cm, without cups, farinose sorediate; squamules rare (usually near the base of podetia); apothecia red, at the tips of the podetia, single to clustered.
K+ yellow, Pd+ orange (this spot reactions distinguish Cl. macilenta from the subspecies Cl. bacillaris).
Sweden; Värmland.
Cladonia-macilenta-5654 Cladonia macilenta Hoffm.
Amongst mosses on granitic rocks.
Podetia up to 3 cm, without cups, farinose to granular sorediate; squamules small, rare (usually near the base of podetia); apothecia red, at the tips of the podetia, single to clustered. Thallus K-, Pd- (the similar regular form, Cl. macilenta, reacts K+ yellow, Pd+ orange).
Sweden; Värmland.
Cladonia-macroceras-849 Cladonia macroceras (Delise) Hav.
On acid soil in high altitudes (2200 m above sealevel).
Thallus green-grey to green-brown; podetia up to 10 cm tall and 2-5 mm wide, partly swollen, usually unbranched, with few squamules, not sorediate; cups irregular or missing; apothecia brown. Cortex K-, Pd+ red.
Austria: Alps
Cladonia-macrophylla-5708 Cladonia macrophylla (Schaer.) Stenh.
Terricolous, on mosses.
Podetia grey-green, up to 5 cm, simple (branched only near the tips), partly decorticate, often longitudinally fissured, not sorediate, with many peltate squamules (from the base to the tips), basal squamules up to 5 mm; without cups; apothecia large, brown.
K- (difference to the similar Cl. cariosa), Pd+ yellow.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-macrophylla-6949 Cladonia macrophylla (Schaer.) Stenh.
Cladonia-parasitica-8001 Cladonia parasitica (Hoffm.) Hoffm.
On rotted bark of Abies alba.
Primary thallus consisting of very small, irregular, isidia like, sometimes flattend squamules; lower surface sorediate. Podetia rare. Thallus K+ yellow, Pd+ orange.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Cladonia-phyllophora-6087 Cladonia phyllophora Ehrh. ex Hoffm
On acid soils and mossy rocks.
Podetia 1-5 cm; surface areolate near the base, squamulose; basal squamules small, lower surface pale; cups open, irregular; margins often dentate or proliferating.
Podetia K-, Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(Coll/ident: Eichler/Cezanne).
Cladonia phyllophora 8966a Cladonia phyllophora Erh. Ex Hoffm.
On poor, acid soils in a Pinus forest.
Central Europe; Germany; Brandenburg: Niederlausitz.
(Ident: H. Sipman).
Cladonia phyllophora 8966b Cladonia phyllophora Erh. Ex Hoffm.
On poor, acid soils in a Pinus forest.
Central Europe; Germany; Brandenburg: Niederlausitz.
(Ident: H. Sipman).
Cladonia-pleurota-5653 Cladonia pleurota (Flörke) Schaer.
Terricolous, on mosses.
Podetia yellow-grey, up to 2 cm, corticate near the base, granular-sorediate on the upper part (the similar Cl. coccifera is not sorediate); cups conspicuous, regular, gradually tapering downwards, with a short stalk; apothecia/pycnidia red.
Thallus K-, Pd-.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-pleurota-5704 Cladonia pleurota (Flörke) Schaer.
Cladonia-polydactyla-8006  Cladonia polydactyla (Flörke) Spreng.
Terricolous, on mosses upon rocks.
Podetia pale grey to green-grey, up to 3 cm, farinose to granular-sorediate; squamules near the base or sometimes upwards; cups narrow, irregular; apothecia/pycnidia red.
K+ yellow, Pd+ orange.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Cladonia-polydactyla-8006a Cladonia polydactyla (Flörke) Spreng.
Cladonia-portentosa-5707 Cladonia portentosa (Dufour.) Coem. (+ C. rangiferina (left side)
Terricolous; on acid forestal soils.
Podetia up to 5 cm, dying at base, greenish-grey, richely branched (branches in all directions), usually trichotomous branching, axils open; not corticate; not sorediate; no squamules. Thallus K-, KC+ yellow, Pd-. (The similar Cl. arbuscula has branches strongly recurved in one direction and is Pd+ red; Cl. stellaris has more compact podetia - resembling to miniature trees; Cl. ciliata is pale green-grey and Pd+ red).
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-portentosa-6852 Cladonia portentosa (Dufour.) Coem.
Cladoonia-chlorophaea-6931 Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Wirth
On acid soils, between mosses on rocks; sometimes on the base of rottened trunks.
Thallus consisting of small ± erect squamules; podetia expanding regularely from the base to the scyphi; podetia and within the scyphi sorediate. (The similar C. pyxidata subsp. pyxidata is not sorediate but is covered with corticate granules). Thallus K-, C-, Pd+ red.
Central Europe: Germany.
Cladonia-pyxidata-8586 Cladonia pyxidata subsp. pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.
On acid soils, between mosses.
Thallus with small basal squamules; podetia small (up to 15 mm), surface granular to warted (not sorediate); cups expanding regularly from the base (the cups of C. fimbriata open abruptly from the stems, the podetia are farinosely sorediate); apothecia brown. Cortex K-, Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany; Bavaria: Allgäu.
Cladonia-pyxidata-subsp.-pyxidata-7968 Cladonia pyxidata subsp. pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-pyxidata-ssp.-pocillum-7231 Cladonia pyxidata subsp. pocillum (Ach.) Dahl
On calcareous rocks (Zechstein).
Thallus without soredia, consisting of a rosette of small and overlapping basal squamules; squamules adpressed, small and poorly intended; podetia up to 15 mm, surface granular to warted (also in the cups); cups wide. Thallus Pd+ red. (The similar Cl. pyxidata has no overlapping and rosette-forming squamules).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-pyxidata-pocillum-6650a Cladonia pyxidata subsp. pocillum (Ach.) Dahl
Cladonia-ramulosa-8239 Cladonia ramulosa (With.) Laundon
On acid soil.
Basal squamules inconspicuous; podetia up to 3 cm tall, very variable: with irregular cups and fingerlike apothecia at the margins (see lower part of the image) or with pointed apices (apothecia then often big and clustered - see upper part - and translucent when wet), surface decorticate in large areas, partly with coarse squamules or granules (not really sorediate). Thallus K-, C-, Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-ramulosa-8231 Cladonia ramulosa (With.) Laundon
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-ramulosa-8968 Cladonia ramulosa (With.) Laundon
On poor and acid soil in a Pinus forest.
Wet specimen.
Central Europe; Germany; Brandenburg: Niederlausitz.
Cladonia-rangiferina-4927-Cladonia-arbuscula-4926 Cladonia rangiferina (L.) Wigg. left side +Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Flot. right side.
Terricolous; on poor and acid soils.
Podetia up to 8 cm, grey-white, with brownish tips, not sorediate, not corticate, richely branched (branches orientated in one direction), branching usually tetrachotomus; axils open; apothecia brown, rare. Podetia K+ yellow, Pd+ red (see lower image).
Sweden: Värmland.
Central Europe.
Cladonia-rangiferina-03-7 Cladonia rangiferina (L.) Wigg.
Cladonia-rangiformis-7232 Cladonia rangiformis Hoffm.
On ± alkaline soils.
Thallus consisting of podetia, up to 5 cm tall, richely branched; surface with spots of green algae on a white background (the similar Cl. furcata without such spots); axils usually closed; basal squamules rare, small. Thallus K+ yellow (Cl. furcata K-), Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Cladonia-rangiformis-8368 Cladonia rangiformis Hoffm.
Cladonia-rei-8958 Cladonia rei Schaer.
On acid and poor soils.
Thallus shrubby, up to 5 cm tall; podetia green-grey to green-brown, mostly simple or scarcely branched, farinose to granular sorediate (but corticated at the base and sometimes below the apothecia), squamulose near the base; occasionally with deformed cups, margins not proliferating (difference to Cl. subulata); apothecia brown, rare. Podetia K-; Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany; Brandenburg: Niederlausitz.
Cladonia-rei-5715 Cladonia rei Schaer.
On acid and poor soils.
Thallus shrubby, up to 5 cm tall; podetia green-grey to green-brown, mostly simple or scarcely branched, farinose to granular sorediate (but corticated at the base and sometimes below the apothecia), squamulose near the base; occasionally with deformed cups, margins not proliferating (difference to Cl. subulata); apothecia brown, rare. Podetia Pd+ red (but in some specimen no reaction).
Central Europe.
Cladonia-squamosa-6064 Cladonia squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm.
Terricolous and on mosses.
Podetia grey-green, up to 5 cm, very variable, cylindrical, with pointed tips or unconspicuous cups (open); densely covered with squamules; near the tips granular-sorediose; apothecia/pycnidia brown. No spot reactions.
Central Europe.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-squamosa-5652 Cladonia squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm.
Cladonia-stellaris Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vezda
Terricolous; on poor and acid soils.
Podetia up to 8 cm, yellowish-green, richely branched, mainly trichotomous (branches orientated in all directions, isolated specimen resembling to little trees), yellowish-green to grey-green, dying at base, not sorediate, not corticate. Thallus K-, Pd-.
(The similar Cl. portentosa is not as compact and does not resemble to miniature trees).
Sweden: Värmland, Dalarna.
Cladonia-subulata Cladonia subulata (L.) Wigg.
Terricolous, on acid soils; on mossy rocks.
Podetia up to 5 cm, grey-green, farinose sorediate; sometimes corticate near the base and with some squamules; cups rare (if present often with proliferations); podetia usually with pointed apices, sometimes branched or furcate; apothecia brown, rare.
Thallus K-, Pd+ red.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
Cladonia-sulphurina-8579 Cladonia sulphurina (Michx.) Fr.
Terricolous, saxicolous; on mosses.
Podetia yellow-green, up to 5 cm, longitudinally fissured, completely farinose-sorediate (except a small zone near the base which is corticate and sometimes squamulose, basal squamules up to 5 mm diameter); podetia usually with ± pointed apices, rarely with irregular cups; apothecia/pycnidia red. Thallus K-, Pd-.
Central Europe; Germany; Bavaria: Allgäu.
Cladonia-sulphurina-7733 Cladonia sulphurina (Michx.) Fr.
Sweden: Värmland.
Cladonia-symphycarpia-6210 Cladonia symphycarpia (Flörke) Fr.
On calcareous soils.
Thallus usually without podetia, consisting of basal squamules (margins recurved when dry, showing the whitish underside), upper surface of the squamules grey-green. Thallus K+ yellow, turning to red, C-, KC- Pd+ yellow.
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera.
Cladonia-uncialis-4925a Cladonia uncialis (L.) Wigg.
Terricolous.
Podetia up to 5 cm, yellowish-green, completely corticate, dying at base, dichotomously branched near the pointed and brownish apices, axils open; basal squamules absent; apothecia/pycnidia brown. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Sweden.
Clauzadea-monticola-8626 Clauzadea monticola (Ach.) Haf. & Bellem.
On calcareous rocks.
Thallus grey, granular or rimose; apothecia constricted at the base; disc brown to black, flat to convex; margin black, ± raised, usually persistent. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Gemany: Hesse.
Cliostomum griffithii-CE2107   MP-E  5zu1  f56  ISO100  13sec  A  6 Bilder Cliostomum griffithii (Sm.) Coppins
On bark of deciduous trees.
Thallus slightly shiny, warted; often with pycnidia; apothecia rare (0.2-0.6 mm diam.). Thallus K+ yellow; pycnidial walls K+ red.
Central Europe; Germny: Hesse.
(Coll/ident: Eichler/Cezanne).
Coenogonium-luteum-8225 Coenogonium luteum (Dicks.) Kalb & Lücking
On the bark of Laurus spec. (Laurisilva).
Thallus grey to greenish-grey; apothecia -2 mm diam., disc orange, margin paler (translucent). No spot reactions.
Portugal: Madeira.
1000 m above sea level.
Coenogonium-pineti-6093a Coenogonium pineti (Schrad. ex Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch
Corticolous; on acid and shaded bark (mainly conifers), in deep crevices.
Thallus inconspicuous, grey to greenish-grey. Apothecia sessile but constricted at base, flesh-coloured, up to 0.4 mm wide, disc concave to flat; margin concolorous or paler, smooth. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Coenogonium-pineti Coenogonium pineti (Schrad. ex Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch
Collema-auriforme-7102 Collema auriforme (With.) Coppins &Laundon
On calcareous rocks.
Thallus dark olive; lobes ascending on margins, undulating, sligthly striate, up to 1 cm wide, swollen when wet; covered with crowded globular isidia (black). No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Baden-Württemberg; Swabian Mountains.
Collema-auriforme-8598 Collema auriforme (With.) Coppins &Laundon
On calcareous rocks.
Central Europe; Germany; Bavaria: Allgäu.
Collema-crispum-8563 Collema crispum  (Huds.) Wigg.
On calcareous rocks.
Central Europe; Germany; Bavaria: Allgäu.
Collema-crispum-8608 Collema crispum  (Huds.) Wigg.
On calcareous rocks.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Collema-cristatum-6809e Collema cristatum (L.) Wigg.
Epilitic; on calcareous rocks.
Thallus greenish-blackish; lobes thin, concave, ends incised, with small lobules; apothecia up to 5 mm; margins crenulate (see lowest image). Spot reactions negative.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(150 m above sea level).
(Coll/ident: Eichler/Cezanne).
Collema-cristatum-2061 Collema cristatum (L.) Wigg.
On calcareous rocks.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Collema-cristatum-2013-D.Teuber Collema cristatum (L.) Wigg.
Epilitic; on calcareous rocks.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Collema-cristatum-879 Collema cristatum (L.) Wigg.
On calcareous rocks.
Austria: Alps.
Collema-flaccidum-01 Collema flaccidum (Ach.) Ach.
Corticolous, on frestandig deciduous trees or on acid rocks; in humid habitats.
Thallus leaflike; margins ascending; isidia flattende ore lobate on mature specimen; apothecia rare. Spot reactions negative.
Austria; Alps: Kärnten.
Collema-flaccidum-509 Collema flaccidum (Ach.) Ach.
Collema-fuscovirens-5603  Collema fuscovirens (With.) Laundon
On a calcareous wall.
Lobes branched, elongated, channelled; margins ascending; upper surface blackish-olive, covered with globular isidia; lower side paler; lobes translucent when wet. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Collema-fuscovirens-8621 Collema fuscovirens (With.) Laundon
On a calcareous wall.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Collema-nigrescens-feucht-8617 Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC.
Corticolous; on old, deciduous trees.
Lobes up to 1 cm wide, bullate and/or longitudinally ridged; sometimes with small and globular isidia; apothecia frequent. Spot reactions negative.
Central Europe; Germany; Bavaria: Allgäu.
Collema-nigrescens-5466 Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC.
Austria: Alps.
Collema nigrescens 3438 01 Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC.
Lobes up to 1 cm wide, pustulate and ridged, with few irregular granular-nodular isidia; apothecia common, +- stalked (0.6-1 mm);  margin lecanorine; hymenium colourless (90 µm); asci 8-spored (70 µm); ascoscores acicular, often twisted, up to 12-septate (60-88 x 3.5-4.5 µm). The similar C. subnigrescens has shorter and wider ascospores; they are 4-5-septate.
On Castanea sativa.
P: Madeira.
Collema nigrescens 3438 02 Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC.
On Castanea sativa.
P: Madeira.
Collema nigrescens 3438 03 Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC.
On Castanea sativa.
P: Madeira.
Collema nigrescens 3438 04 Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC.
On Castanea sativa.
Apothecia.
P: Madeira.
Collema nigrescens Mikroskop 3438 Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC.
On Castanea sativa.
Microscopic details.
P: Madeira.
Collema-polycarpon-0301
Collema polycarpon Hoffm.
Epilithic; on calcareous rocks.
Lobes deeply incised, weakly channelled, broadest at the ends; apothecia frequent (name). Spot reactions negative.
Austria: Alps
Collema-polycarpon-8035 Collema polycarpon Hoffm.
Collema subnigrescens 1653a Collema subnigrescens  Degel.
On Quercus spec.
Lobes menbrane-like, roundes, adpressed, up to 1.5 cm wide, often folded; apothecia - 1.5 mm, sessile with constricted base; disc flat, pruinose; margin entire.
Portugal: Madeira.
Collema subnigrescens 1653b Collema subnigrescens  Degel.
On Quercus spec.
Portugal: Madeira.
Collema subnigrescens 9147a Collema subnigrescens  Degel.
On Laurus spec.
Portugal: Madeira.
Collema subnigrescens 9147b Collema subnigrescens  Degel.
On Laurus spec.
Portugal: Madeira.
 
Collema-tenax-0801a Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach. em. Degel.
On sandy soil.
Thallus blackish; lobes erect, strongly swollen when wet (espicially on the ascending margins); apothecia frequent (missing at the specimen presented here). No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Gemany: Hesse.
(Collected: B. Mattonet).
Cornicularia-normoerica-831a Cornicularia normoerica (Gunnerus) Du Rietz
Epilithic; on siliceous rocks.
Thallus forming erect tufts, up to 2 cm; branches flattened, (up to 1 mm wide), solid, tough; apothecia common, terminal to sub-terminal; disc black and shiny, often with a spiny margin. No spot reactions.
Austria: Alps.
(2700 m above sea level).
Cornicularia-normoerica-831b Cornicularia normoerica (Gunnerus) Du Rietz
Cyphelium-tigillare-896 Cyphelium tigillare (Ach.) Ach.
Epixyl; on rotted planks and old wooden boards and pales.
Thallus yellow-green, verrucose; apothecia black, up to 0.8 mm wide, not pruinose, imbedded in thallus warts; margin thin, rim-like. No spot reactions.
Austria; Alps: Tirol.
(Ident: Türk).