Flechtenbilder (D-F)

  Degelia-atlantica-0804a Degelia atlantica (Degel.) Jörg. & James
Thallus rosette-forming, up to 10 cm in diameter; lobes longitudinally striated; with knob-like or coralloid isidia that may become confluent and covering the whole thallus; lower side with a blue-black tomentum, often extending the margins. Spot reactions negative.
Portugal: Madeira.
Spain: Canary Islands: La Gomera.
  Degelia-plumbea-6513 Degelia plumbea (Lightf.) Jörg. & James
Corticolous; mainly on deciduous trees (Laurisilva).
Thallus plate-like, up to 10 cm in diameter; upper surface of the lobes with longitudinal and concentric ridges; lower surface with a blue-black tomentum, often extending the margin: apothecia usually numerous, up to 1 mm, disc orange-brown to red-brown, convex; margin paler. Spot reactions negative.
Portugal: Madeira.
Spain: Canary Islands: La Gomera.
  Degelia-plumbea-030419 Degelia plumbea (Lightf.) Jörg. & James
  Dermatocarpon-luridum-3565 Dermatocarpon luridum (Dill. ex With.) Laundon
Epilithic; on gneiss in high altitudes; on wet and shady rocks or in the amphibic zone of clear small creeks.
Thallus multilobed, up to 1.5 cm wide, attached with a single holdfast; upper surface grey brown to brown (intensive green when wet), not pruinose; lower side pale brown, smooth or with unconspicuous veins. With brown-black perithecia. No spot reactions.
Austria: Alps.
  Dermatocarpon-miniatum-7815 Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) Mann
On volcanic rocks.
Thallus resembles to Umbilicaria (attached by a solitary holdfast), mostly single-lobed, up to 7 cm wide, concave but margins raised; margins usually deeply incised and contorted; perithecia small (-0.3 mm) with dark brown ostioles (Umbilicaria without perithecia); lower surface tan-brown. No spot reactions.
Portugal: Madeira.
Germany: Hesse.
  Dermatocarpon-miniatum-060819 Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) Mann
  Dermatocarpon-miniatum-Unterseite Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) Mann
Lower surface
  Dibaeis-baeomyces-140825 Dibaeis baeomyces (L.) Rambold & Hertel
On acid and poor soils (pioneer vegetation).
Thallus crustose, consisting of granules or schizidia of various size; often sterile and then thallus farinose-sorediate. Apothecia stalked, up to 6 mm high and 3 mm in diameter, head globose, with a rose-pink epihymenium.
Thallus K+ orange, KC+ orange, C-, Pd+ orange.
(It may be confused with Icmadophila ericetorum when sterile).
Central Europe; Germany; Bavaria: Alps.
  Dibaeis-baeomyces Dibaeis baeomyces (L.) Rambold & Hertel
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
  Dimelaena-oreina-837a Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norm.
Epilithic; on gneiss, in high altitudes.
Thallus crustose (margins ± squamulose); areoles flat, angular. Apothecia black, 0.4-1.2 mm in diameter; spores 9-15 x 5-7,5 µm.
Austria: Alps
  Diploica-canescens-6909a Diploica canescens (Dicks.) Massal.
On volcanic rocks.
Thallus rosette forming, up to 5 cm diam., center darker; outer lobes radiating, becoming wider to the tips, convex, pruinose at the tips; with green to grey soralia(mainly in the center). Thallus K+ yellow (the similar Solenopsora candidans is not sorediat and has no positiv reaction with K).
Spain; Canary Islands: Lanzarote.
  Diploica-canescens-Schessl Diploica canescens (Dicks.) Massal.
On bark of Quercus spec.
(Collected by M. Schessl).
  Diploschistes-gypsaceus-7948a Diploscistes gypsaceus (Ach.) Zahlbr.
On calcareous soil.
Thallus areolate, pruinose. Apothecia (2-5 mm diameter) urceolate, with black and pruinose disc.
Thallus C+ red.
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera.
Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) Sant.
Parasitical on Cladonia when young (upper photo); on mossy , calcareous soils (lower image).
Thallus pale grey, uneven; apothecia urceolate, up to 2 mm, disc pruinose.
Cortex K± yellow, C+ red.
The very similar D. scruposus grows on rocks.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Austria: Alps.
  Diploschistes-scruposus-5528a Diploschistes scruposus (Schreb.) Norman
Saxicolous, on gneiss in high altitudes (Alps) and on maritim volcanic rocks (La Gomera).
Thallus grey, areolate, warted-uneven; apothecia frequent, urceolate, disc pruinose, up to 2 mm, margin raised above the thallus,
Cortex K± yellow, C+ red.
Austria: Alps (upper image).
Spain, Canary Islands: La Gomera.
  Diploschistes-scruposus-8475 Diploschistes scruposus (Schreb.) Norman
  Diplotomma-alboatrum-Caloplaca-arnoldii Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot. + 
Caloplaca arnoldii 
(Wedd.) Zahlbr. ex Ginzb.
On a wall.
Thallus grey, smooth and cracked. Apothecia 0.3-0.8 mm, disc often pruinose; rim grey, thin, ± crenulate; spores 1-3 septate, later often submuriform, 15-20 x 8-10 µm.
No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
Collected 1858!
Identificated by Cezanne & Eichler.
  Diplotomma-alboatrum-8064 Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot.
  Diplotomma-alboatrum-150810 Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot.
  Diplotomma-alboatrum-160903 Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot. 
On a cemetery wall (with mortar). Not collected.
Thallus grey, smooth and cracked. Apothecia 0.3-0.8 mm, disc often pruinose; rim grey, thin, ± crenulate; spores 1-3 septate, later often submuriform, 15-20 x 8-10 µm.
No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse: Taunus mountains (Espenschied).
  Diplotomma alboatrum 9530a Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot.
Pieces od basaltic rocks (influenced by lime dust).
Thallus chalky white, rimose-areolate; apothecia (- 0.5 mm diam.); disc flat, later convex, slightly pruinose; margin pseudolecanorine (with thalline granules, but also with a lecideine rim, disapperaring with age); epithecium brown; hymenium colourless (50-60 µm); hypothecium brown; Asci 8-spored; ascospores olive green, brown when old, submuriform (with few longitudinal septa), 14-18 x 7.713.7 µm.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
  Diplotomma alboatrum 9530b Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot.
Pieces od basaltic rocks (influenced by lime dust).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
  Diplotomma alboatrum 9530 Mikrsokop Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot.
Pieces od basaltic rocks (influenced by lime dust).
Microscopic details.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
  Diplotomma-hedinii-7581 Diplotomma hedinii (Magn.) Clerc & Roux
On calcareous rocks and walls.
Thallus whitish, cracked-areolate; apothecia 0.3-1.0 mm diam., flat when young, later convex; disc black, covered with a white pruina; margin white; spores brown, 3-septate (not submuriform as the very similar D. alboatrum); epihymenium and hypothecium dark brown. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Bavaria.
  Endocarpon-pusillum-6801d Endocarpon pusillum Hedw.
On nutrient enriched volcanic rocks.
Thallus consisting of scattered squamules (up to 4 mm wide), adpressed, margins slightly raised; whith perithecia.
No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
(150 m above sea level).
  Enterographa-hutchinsiae-8945 Enterographa hutchinsiae  (Leighton) Massal.
On Carpinus betulus (usually on siliceous rocks in damp and shaded environments).
Thallus dark grey to dull olive-green or brownish; apothecia comma-like to lirelliform; black prothallus usually present. No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany; Hesse: Taunus mountains (Wispertal)
(Coll/ident: D. Teuber).
  Evernia-divaricata-41 Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach.
On twigs of conifers.
Thallus yellow-green to grey-green, upper and lower surface from the same colour; lobes prolonged, narrow, longitudinally ridged, slack; cortex fragile ( therefore often transversally fissured and showing the white medulla), tips pointed; without soralia; apothecia not seen.
Thallus K-.
Austria: Alps
  Evernia-prunastri-080114 Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.
Corticolous; on deciduous trees; common
Thallus strap shaped; upper surface green-grey-yellowish, with net-like ridges that become sorediate in older specimens; lower surface whitish, channelled (separation from Ramalina species which have the same colour an both surfaces); Cortex K+ yellow.
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
  Evernia-prunastri-080114a Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.
  Fellhanera-bouteillei Fellhanerea bouteillei (Desm.) Vezda
On needles of Abies alba.
Thallus verruculose-rimose. Apothecia pinkish , very small (0.1-0.3 mm diameter).
No spot reactions.
Central Europe; Germany; Baden-Württemberg: Black Forest.
  Flavocetraria-cucullata-5187-01 Flavocetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt & Thell
(+ Alectoria ochroleuca)
On an alpine meadow and on soils.
Branches to 4 mm wide, channelled (tubular). Margins strongly incurved. Spot reactions: negative
Austria: Alps
Sweden: Dalarna.
  Flavocetraria-cucullata-5187-02 Flavocetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt & Thell
  Flavocetraria-nivalis-01 Flavocetraria nivalis (L.) Kärnefelt & Thell
On soils in cold habitats.
Thallus shrubby, up to 5 cm tall, more yellow (to deeply brown) towards the base; branches up to 1 cm wide, slightly channeled, ridged and wrinkled, deeply incised and undulate; without isidia and soralia. Spot reactions negative (KC± yellow).
Austria: Alps.
  Flavocetraria-nivalis-02 Flavocetraria nivalis (L.) Kärnefelt & Thell
  Flavoparmelia-caperata-111227a Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale
Corticolous; on freestanding deciduous trees; common.
Thallus up to 15 cm in diameter; lobes up to 1 cm wide, wrinkled (mainly at the center), whith coarse soralia; apothecia rare; lower surface black (center), brown at the margins.
Cortex K+ yellow, medulla C- (difference to P. flaventior), Pd+ orange.
Very similar is P. soredians but this species has more adpressed and marginal more incised lobes, K+ red).
Central Europe; Germany: Hesse.
  Flavoparmelia-caperata Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale
  Flavoparmelia-soredians Flavoparmelia soredians (Nyl.) Hale
On the bark of freestanding, broad-leaved trees.
Very similar to Flavoparmelia caperata but lobes narrower (up to 6 mm) and more adpressed; and soralia more farinose. Medulla K+ yellow later turning to red (F. caperata remains yellow), C-, P+ red.
Central Europe: Germany; Hesse.
  Flavopunctelia-flaventior-01 Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirt.) Hale
Corticolous; on freestanding deciduous trees; not very common.
Thallus up to 10 cm in diameter; lobes up to 1 cm wide, ± ascending at the margins, with reticulated pseudocyphellae at upper surface; soralia yellowish-green, laminal and marginal; lower surface black (center), brown at the margins (here shiny and ca. 2 mm without rhizines; see lowest photo).
Cortex K+ yellow; medulla/soralia C+ red (difference to Flavoparmelia caperata), Pd- (Fl. c. Pd+ orange-red).
Central Europe: Germany.
Lower photos: young specimen from Hesse.
  Flavopunctelia-flaventior-7808 Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirt.) Hale
  Flavopunctelia-flaventior US-7808 Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirt.) Hale
  Flavopunctelia-soredica-7451 Flavopunctelia soredica (Nyl.) Hale
On the bark of deciduous trees.
Thallus adpressed, to 12 cm wide; lobes plane (3-8 mm), with apices rounded; frequently with white maculae; soredia farinose to granular. Upper cortex K+ yellowish, KC-, C-, Pd-; medulla C+ red, KC+ red, K-, Pd-.

Namibia: Waterberg region.
(Identified by V. Wirth).
  Fulgensia-bracteata-8479 Fulgensia bracteata (Hoffm.) Räsänen
On calcareous soil.
Thallus crustose, areolate warty to squamulose; apothecia conspicuous.
Cortex K+ red.
Fulgensia fulgens is distinguished by the conspicuous marginal lobes.
Spain; Canary Islands; La Gomera: Arure.
  Fulgensia-bracteata-3784-01 Fulgensia bracteata (Hoffm.) Räsänen
(Together with Psora decipiens).
Central Europe: Germany.
  Fulgensia-canariensis-5530a Fulgensia canariensis Follmann & Poelt
On volcanic rocks.
Thallus squamulose; apothecial disc slightly convex and marginate when young (margin from the colour of the thallus), disappearing with age; spores pyriform, 8 per ascus, 17,5 x 7 µm, 0- to 1-septate; colourless.
Cortex and apothecia K+ red.
Spain; Canary Islands: La Gomera
  Fulgensia-canariensis-5530c Fulgensia canariensis Follmann & Poelt
  Fulgensia-fulgens-576a Fulgensia fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin
On calcareous soil.
Thallus with marginal lobes (sometimes inconspicuous), upper surface often with a ± whitish pruina. Apothecia conspicuous.
Cortex K+ red.
The marginal lobes distinguish this species from F. bracteata (without lobes).
Central Europe; Germany: Bavaria.
  Fuscopannaria-mediterranea-5084 Fuscopannaria mediterranea  (Tav.) Jörg.
Corticolous (Laurisilva).
Squamules grey to olive-grey, with paler margins; soralia abundant, blue-grey, often covering the whole thallus. Spot reactions negative.
Portugal: Madeira.
  Fuscopannaria mediterranea 3441 01 Fuscopannaria mediterranea  (Tav.) Jörg.
Corticolous (Laurisilva).
Portugal: Madeira.
  Fuscopannaria-mediterranea-7886 Fuscopannaria mediterranea  (Tav.) Jörg.
Corticolous (Laurisilva).
Canary Islands: La Gomera